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Frequently Asked Questions

  1. What is Koji culture?
  2. What is bioavailability?
  3. What is iron overload?
  4. What are organic and inorganic iron sources?
  5. Which is the most common form of iron used for supplementation/fortification?
  6. What is the difference between Ultimine™ Iron and other forms of organic irons?
  7. What is the effective dose for Ultimine™ Koji Iron?
  8. How can I use Ultimine™ in my products?
  9. What are NeuTerre Whole Food Supplements?
  10. References

Answers…

  1. What is Koji culture?

    Koji culture is a microorganism, Aspergillus oryzae, that has been used over 2000 years, in Asia, to produce miso, soy sauce and sake. 1 It is also generally recognized as safe (GRAS) for the production of food-grade enzymes and soy sauce.
  2. What is bioavailability?

    It is the ability of the human body to absorb and utilize macro (i.e proteins) and micronutrients (i.e. minerals, vitamins, and phytochemicals).
  3. What is iron overload?

    It happens when transferrin, a protein in-charged of transporting iron in the blood, becomes saturated and can not bind more iron. Non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI) is free, highly reactive, iron that causes oxidative stress, cellular aging and eventually chronic disease.
  4. What are organic and inorganic iron sources?

    One of the factors that influences the bioavailability of dietary iron in humans is the physical-chemical form of the iron. In the Earth’s crust, iron is mainly found as ferric oxide and its salts. These salts are poorly absorbed by humans and have only become available through their incorporation into plants and animals by bacteria and fungi.2,3 Through this mechanism, ferrous and ferric salts are now common in our foods. Non-heme iron derived from plants such as inorganic ferrous Fe(II) and ferric Fe(III) salts, are absorbed into enterocytes through the divalent metal transporter 1. However ferric iron must be first converted to ferrous Fe(II) by duodenal cytochrome b before it gets absorbed.4

    Besides inorganic salts, foods may also contain iron bound to proteins, peptides, amino acids and carbohydrates. These are described as organic forms of iron; some examples include heme-iron (myoglobin) derived from meat, organic chelates and non-heme iron from bacteria and fungi. 4,5 Ultimine™ Iron is fermented organic iron that is stored within inactive koji culture cells.
  5. Which is the most common form of iron used for supplementation/fortification?

    Ferrous sulphate (FeSO4) is one of the most commonly used sources of iron to combat iron-deficiency anemia (IDA). The preferred preventive option in third-world countries is the fortification of grain-based foods. Despite this long-held understanding of iron’s essential role in the diet, IDA remains the leading cause of malnutrition in the world.6 The latter has been partially attributed to the gastroenterological side effects of high doses of FeSO4, its low absorption in the presence of phytate-rich grain diets, lack of accessibility to heme-iron sources and negative organoleptic impacts of some iron sources to foods.7
  6. What is the difference between Ultimine™ Iron and other forms of organic irons?

    Ultimine™ is a naturally derived source of whole-food minerals, clinically proven to be bioavailable, slow release and easy on the body. It is produced under proprietary (patented/patent pending) koji culture fermentation in a NSF cGMP, Halal and Kosher certified manufacturing facility.
  7. What is the effective dose for Ultimine™ Koji Iron?

    The results from a stable isotope study in humans conducted at Iowa State University by Dr. Manju Reddy and published in Current Development in Nutrition7 showed that Ultimine™ 10 mg iron is as bioavailable as ferrous sulfate at the same dose. The most commonly used in supplements is 18 mg iron/day for women.
  8. How can I use Ultimine™ in my products?

    Ultimine™ can be used to formulate foods, beverages, capsules and tablets. For more information, contact our partner Naturex. Click here.
  9. What are NeuTerre Whole Food Supplements?

    They are Koji Fermented Minerals formulated with Ultimine™ ingredients. To learn more visit: https://www.curaglobalhealth.com/products.aspx.
  10. References

    1. Murooka Y, Yamshita M: Traditional healthful fermented products of Japan. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 2008, 35:791-798.

    2. Drechsel H, Jung G: Peptide Siderophores. J Peptide Sci 1998, 4:147-181.

    3. Berdbanier CD, Zempleni J: Advanced Nutrition: Macronutrients, Micronutrients, and Metabolism. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2009.

    4. Kohgo Y, Ikuta K, Ohtake T, Torimoto Y, Kato J: Body iron metabolism and pathophysiology of iron overload. Int J Hematol 2008, 88:7-15.

    5. Aggett PJ: Iron. In Present Knowledge in Nutrition. 10th Edition edition. Edited by John W. Erdman Jr. IAM, and Steven H. Ziesel: International Life Sciences Institute and Willey-Black Well; 2012: 506-520

    6. WHO Global Database on Anemia. www.who.int/nutrition/publication/micronutrients/anemia. Worldwide prevalence of anemia (1993-2005).

    7. Manju B Reddy, Seth M Armah, Jeanne W Stewart,and Kimberly O O’Brien. Iron Absorption from Iron-Enriched Aspergillus oryzae Is Similar to Ferrous Sulfate in Healthy Female Subjects. Curr Dev Nutr 2018;2:nzy004.